Articles

CONFERENCES ATTENDEND BY LECTURERS

PUBLICATIONS BY LECTURERS IN THE DEPARTMENT.

Ngure, G., Begi, N., Kimani, E., & Mweru, M. (2014). Utilization of Instructional Media for Quality Training in Pre-primary School Teacher Training Colleges in Nairobi County, Kenya, Journal of Education, 2(7), 1-22. ISSN: 2347-8225.

Journalistic story for this publication - Grace Ngure our PhD student was motivated to research on the use of instructional media in pre-primary school because she had noted many individuals do not pay much attention to instructional media in pre-primary school teacher training colleges

Bullying in Kenyan Schools: Causes, Impact and Possible Intervention Strategies
Maureen Mweru, Kenyatta University, Kenya
Bullying is progressively emerging as a concern in Kenya as horrifying cases continue to be reported. The bullying trend in Kenyan secondary schools especially is worrying as these schools are experiencing higher levels of bullying than the international level. Although it seems to be rampant in Kenyan schools, there is scant empirical research on bullying and the only available literature on this topic focuses on bullying in secondary schools. The issue of bullying in primary schools in Kenya is not well documented. This study therefore intended to establish the trends and prevalence of bullying in Kenyan primary schools, the variety of reasons that perpetuate bullying, the impact of bullying and interventions for the bullying problem. Data was collected from 202 boys and 229 girls using a questionnaire. The results revealed both physical and psychological types of bullying exist in Kenyan primary schools. T-test results revealed significant differences between the boys and girls with boys being more likely to use physical forms of bullying while girls tended to use psychological forms. In addition, being bigger was among the reasons given for the bullying behaviour and the children also indicated they did not always report bullying behaviour inflicted on them. Bullying in Kenyan schools needs to be reduced and there might be need to develop specific programs for the different forms of bullying.

PRESENTER - MWERU,M. YEAR 2014 

Title of presentation - Bullying in Kenyan Primary Schools: Causes, Impact and Possible Intervention Strategies. City - Shanghai, China

Journalistic Story for the paper presented in the conference - I was motivated to write on bullying in primary schools because it is an area that has been ignored. Most researchers focus on bullying in secondary schools.

Bullying in Kenyan Schools: Causes, Impact and Possible Intervention Strategies
Maureen Mweru, Kenyatta University, Kenya
Bullying is progressively emerging as a concern in Kenya as horrifying cases continue to be reported. The bullying trend in Kenyan secondary schools especially is worrying as these schools are experiencing higher levels of bullying than the international level. Although it seems to be rampant in Kenyan schools, there is scant empirical research on bullying and the only available literature on this topic focuses on bullying in secondary schools. The issue of bullying in primary schools in Kenya is not well documented. This study therefore intended to establish the trends and prevalence of bullying in Kenyan primary schools, the variety of reasons that perpetuate bullying, the impact of bullying and interventions for the bullying problem. Data was collected from 202 boys and 229 girls using a questionnaire. The results revealed both physical and psychological types of bullying exist in Kenyan primary schools. T-test results revealed significant differences between the boys and girls with boys being more likely to use physical forms of bullying while girls tended to use psychological forms. In addition, being bigger was among the reasons given for the bullying behaviour and the children also indicated they did not always report bullying behaviour inflicted on them. Bullying in Kenyan schools needs to be reduced and there might be need to develop specific programs for the different forms of bullying.

Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Public Primary Schools in Soweto South Africa: Educational Support, Challenges and Intervention Measures
By Teresa Mwoma
Lecturer: Kenyatta University Department of Early Childhood
JacePillay
South African Research Chair, Education and Care in Childhood
University of Johannesburg

An important indicator of children’s wellbeing and future life opportunities, educational status can predict growth potential and economic viability of a state. While this is an ideal situation for children the case may be different for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) due to the challenges they go through on a daily basis. This article aims to advance a debate on the findings of our study on the educational support provided for them through a critical engagement on the challenges experienced and the intervention measures to be taken in the South African public primary schools context. The study involved 107 participants comprising 65 OVC and 42 teachers. Questionnaires with structured and unstructured questions were utilized to collect descriptive and qualitative data. Findings suggest that, although the South African Government has put in place support mechanisms for attaining their basic education, numerous challenges were found to be hindering some OVC from attaining quality education. Based on the findings, several intervention measures have been suggested.

Psychosocial Support for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Public Primary Schools in South Africa: Challenges and Intervention Measures
Teresa Mwoma
Lecturer: Kenyatta University Department of Early Childhood
JacePillay
South African Research Chair, Education and Care in Childhood
University of Johannesburg
Much has been written about orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) with regard to their education and living. However, relatively few studies have documented the psychosocial support provided for OVC in public primary schools to enhance their psychosocial well-being. This mixed methods study therefore contributes to the understanding of the challenges experienced by teachers in providing psychosocial support for OVC and the possible intervention measures that could be adopted to mitigate these challenges. Seven public primary schools from Soweto participated in the study comprising of 42 educators and 65 OVC in grade seven. Findings that emerged through content analysis provide supporting evidence that minimal psychosocial support is offered and is marred by numerous challenges in public primary schools including lack of professionals to provide guidance and counselling services, few teachers trained on life orientation, and lack of support from parents/guardians for OVC. Based on the findings, several intervention strategies are presented.

By Catherine Gakii
1. Catherine Gakii Murungi Learning in the digital Age of Choice, What Is the Perception for Lecturers and Students in the Kenyan Universities?
Meru, Kenya 27th – 29th, 2014
2. Catherine Gakii Murungi Web 2.0 Technologies Use by Students in Kenyan Universities. Nairobi, Kenya 29-30th July, 2013
3. Catherine Gakii Murungi Are Lectures And Students In Kenyan Universities Interacting With Technology In the Blended/Hybrid Classes?
Nairobi, Kenya 29-30th July, 2013
4. Catherine Gakii Murungi Management of students’ records in Kenyan universities: The Lecturers perception Nairobi, Kenya 12th July, 2013
5.  Catherine Gakii Murungi Web 2.0 Technologies in e-teaching classes by lecturers in the Kenyan Universities. Nairobi, Kenya 11th July, 2013
6.Catherine Gakii Murungi What are the Students’ Perceptions to digitalizing their personal Records? Nairobi, Kenya 10th July, 2013
7.  Catherine Gakii Murungi Web 2.0 Technologies in e-learning classes among the Kenyan Universities. Nairobi, Kenya 11th July, 2013

Attended conferences, seminars and workshops by: Catherine Murungi
1. 2015 Legal Issues Facing New Teachers Webinar 11th March, 2015
2. 2015 Excellence in Every Classroom: Supporting Teachers in Guaranteeing Learning for all Webinar 10th March, 2015
3. 2015 The Teachers Lounge: Engaging and Training Your Teacher Community on a Dime Webinar 6th March, 2015
4. 2015 Child Development (Conception to Age 8) Webinar 3rd March, 2015
5. 2015 Preparing Children for Success in School Life Webinar 3rd March, 2015
6. 2015 Writing a Winning Grant Application Webinar 2nd March, 2015
7. 2015 OER 101: What are Open Educational Resources and Why Are They Important? Webinar 28th February, 2015
8. 2015 Big G Game Based - Learning Webinar 27th February, 2015
9. 2015 Building Young Children’s Sounds, Words and Brains: Your Words and Interactions Matter Webinar 26th February, 2015
10. 2015 Marker spaces: The Now Revolution in School Libraries Webinar 18th February, 2015
11. 2015 Preparing Students with Multilingual Skills for a Global Society Webinar 13th February, 2015
12. 2015 Being a Connected Educator Webinar 12th February, 2015
13. 2015 Effective Teaching Resources That You Don’t Have to Make Yourself Webinar 11th February, 2015
14. 2015 Preparing for High-Stakes Tests without Sacrificing your Instructional Program Webinar 11th February, 2015
15. 2015 Financial Literacy for Kids Webinar 10th February, 2015
16. 2015 Engaging Students With Online Images Webinar 10th February, 2015
17. 2015 Personalized Language Learning with Technology: Best Practices From the Trenches Webinar 7th February, 2015
18. 2015 Excellence in Every Classroom: Supporting Teachers in Guaranteeing Learning for All Webinar 6th February, 2015
19. 2015 Visual Models in Math: Connecting Concepts with Procedures for Whole Number and Decimal Addition and Subtraction Webinar 4th February, 2015
20. 2015 Technology and Digital Media in the Early Years: Big Ideas, Best Practices and Future Directions Webinar 4th February, 2015
21. 2015 Bring Learning to Life! How Augmented Reality can Transform The Classroom Webinar 29th January, 2015
22. 2015 How Effective Supervisors Guide Teachers by Giving Feedback With Ease Webinar 28th January, 2015
23. 2015 Ages, Stages and Interactive Pages: Understanding What makes Great Digital Learning Content for Young Children Webinar 27th January, 2015
24. 2015 Weaving Digital Imagery Into Every Day Teaching Webinar 27th January, 2015
25. 2015 Supporting Children’s Development of Early Math Skills Through Music and Movement Webinar 23rd January, 2015
26. 2015 Empowering Teacher Collaboration with Digital Portfolios Webinar 23rd January, 2015
27. 2015 Roadmap to Optimizing K12 Communities: Achieve Superior Engagement for Your District. Webinar 22nd January, 2015
28. 2015 Designing a Whole-Child Accountability System Webinar 21st January, 2015
29. 2015 Help Children Learn How to Self Regulate, Pay Attention and Care for one Another Webinar 20th January, 2015
30. 2015 Digital Math Strategies to Personalize Learning in K-8 Webinar 20th January, 2015
31. 2015 The Language of Math: the Common Core and English-Learners Webinar 16th January, 2015
32. 2015 How Documenting Children’s Learning is Much More than Display: Reflecting Teachers’ and Children’s Thinking Webinar 15th January, 2015
33. 2015 Student-Generated, Cutting-Edge Technology for Learning Webinar 15th January, 2015
34. 2014 Teaching Young Children about Personal Safety in ECE programs- Challenging Conversations Webinar December 17th , 2014
35. 2014 Best Practices for Managing “Out of Control” Children: A Team Approach for Early Educators and Families Webinar December 3rd , 2014
36. 2014 Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Development: The Heart of Early Learning  Webinar November 12th , 2014
37. 2014 Planning for Purposeful Play and Learning- Intentional Resource Selection in Early Education Webinar October 29th , 2014
38. 2014 Out is In! How Outdoor Play Environments Bring Learning Outdoors Webinar October 22nd , 2014
39. 2014 Technology “Must Haves” for Early Childhood Administrators Webinar October 8th , 2014
40. 2014 Powerful Interactions In Early Childhood Programs: How Teachers Connect with Children to Extend Their Learning Webinar October 1st , 2014
41. 2014 The Philosophical Baby: What Children’s Minds Tell Us About Truth, Love and the Meaning of Life, Webinar September 17th , 2014
42. 2014 Is Your Program Ready and Safe for Emergencies? Before, During and After the Unimaginable Happens, REPEAT PERFORMANCE Webinar September 10th, 2014
43. 2014 Empowering Teachers to Build Language and Literacy Through Strength-based Coaching Webinar September 3rd , 2014
44. 2014 QRIS, Licensing, and Accreditation: The Keys to Creating a Continuous Quality Improvement Culture in Your ECE Program Webinar August 27th , 2014
45. 2014 Emergent Curriculum- Debunking the Myths and Creating Shared Understanding Webinar August 20th , 2014
46. 2014 Is Your Program Ready and Safe for Emergencies? Protecting Young Children Before, During and After the Unimaginable Happens Webinar August 6th, 2014
47. 2014 Ethical and Responsible Conduct of Research KUCC, Nairobi September 15th – 16th , 2014
48. 2014 A Menu for Successful Family Engagement- How Administrators Set the Table Webinar July 16th, 2014
49. 2014 The Power of Playful Learning in Early Education: How Guided Play Sparks Social and Academic Outcomes Webinar June 18th, 2014
50. 2014 Online Marketing Secrets for Early Childhood Programs: The Key to Growing Your Enrollment Webinar May 28th, 2014
51. 2014 The Building Blocks of Early Mathematics: Learning Trajectories for Young Children Webinar May 14th, 2014
52. 2014 Learning in Two Languages in Early Childhood: What Every Early Childhood Professional Needs to Know Webinar April 30th , 2014
53. 2014 Integrating STEAM into the ECE Classroom: Finding and Utilizing the Right Resources for Your Center Webinar April 9th , 2014
54. 2014 We are In This Together: Quick Tips to Keep Families, Staff and Communities Engaged Webinar April 2nd, 2014
55. 2014 Power Up Story Time by TALKING: Reading with Toddlers and Preschoolers in Small Groups Webinar March 19th , 2014
56. 2014 Communicating with Families in Head Start- 21st Century Techniques to Enhance Family Involvement and Relationships Webinar March 5th , 2014

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO VOCABULARY SPURT IN CHILDREN IN KENYA

Wanjohi Githinji, 2012
CONFERENCE ON LEARNING, TEACHING AND EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
25-28 OCTOBER 2012,

Maison N.-D. Chat d'Oiseau BRUSELLS, LUXEMBURG - BELGIUM


JOURNALISTIC STORY
In many scholarly studies in early childhood development in Kenya, there has been a tendency to focus on children of the school going age particularly in language matters. This means that there is a likelihood of gaps in information concerning language development before children can express themselves. For this reason there was need to study how children’s language develops within the first two years. The age bracket between 18-24 months of age is crucial in that caregivers get surprised at a vocabulary burst, a situation where children produce a string of words and understand so much within a very short time. This is a period where caregivers can target and utilize to give children a head start in language acquisition and learning. This will lay a strong foundation for use of language. With language developing appropriately, mental development will be stimulated and so will learning be made easier. This will enable the child to progress smoothly in both social and academic development.
ABSTRACT
Language development determines children’s future educational and social success. Performance in schools at all levels is related to the teaching and learning of language in the early childhood years. In Kenya there has been a public outcry that children are being introduced to foreign languages too early, even before they have mastered the first language, within which the vocabulary spurt occurs. This in turn impedes the learning of other languages in school. This study investigated the occurrence of the vocabulary spurt as well as various factors that influence it. A sample of 100 children aged 18-24 months was selected for observation. Data was collected using reports from parents and other key informants through an adapted and modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (MacArthur CDI). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in data analysis. Chi-Square was used to test the relationship between independent and dependent variables while Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis was used to establish the contribution of selected factors to the occurrence of the vocabulary spurt. The findings of the study suggest that children undergo a vocabulary spurt. Age, vocabulary stimulation and social-economic status had a significant contribution to the vocabulary spurt occurrence and language development in the early years. The study recommends that stakeholders, including teachers, should address specific age related differences in children under three years in providing early stimulating linguistic experiences and language activities that are relevant to children’s language learning.


MOTHER TONGUE POLICY IMPLEMENTATION AND LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION PRACTICES IN LOWER PRIMARY SCHOOL CLASSES; A CASE OF NYERI COUNTY, KENYA

WANJOHI GITHINJI, 2014

PRESENTED IN AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES 6-8 AUGUST 2014 BY THE INSTITUTE OF AFRICAN STUDIES AT KENYATTA UNIVERSITY, KENYA

JOURNALISTIC STORY
There has been a raging debate concerning whether to use mother tongue or not in the instruction of children in lower primary school in Kenya. Even with the education policy on language of instruction being clear since 1976 schools have been instructing learners in English. This has been a contravention of the said policy leading to children being introduced to foreign languages too early even before they can competently use their mother tongue. In the recent past the Cabinet Secretary in-charge of education issued a directive that all schools should implement this policy. This was met with an outcry by those expected to support and implement education policies. In particular was the secretary general of the Kenya National Union of Teachers (KNUT) and Head teachers and some teachers across the country. One of the arguments raised by those opposed to the move of enforcing the policy was that with no or limited mother tongue instructional materials and exams being set in English, this will be a difficult undertaking. Failure to implement this policy means that majority of children in Kenya will have to contend with both the learning of a new language (English) and receiving education in the same. This is likely to jeopardize the efforts being made in providing education for all, increasing enrolment, retaining children in school and reducing repetition in school. This will in turn affect both industrialization and economic development of this country.


ABSTRACT
The language policy in Kenya stipulates that learners in early childhood education be instructed in the language of catchment area. First language is important for social-cultural and cognitive development, smooth transition from home to school and learning of second language. Failure to implement such a policy is likely to negatively affect children’s social and education development. In the recent past, a debate has been ranging concerning instructing children in mother tongue. This comes at a time when children are being introduced to foreign languages too early. Learning new concepts in unfamiliar language is a difficult task for children in early childhood. The study adopted a descriptive research design and was qualitative in nature. The independent variables were the factors influencing the choice of language of instruction while the dependent variable was the language of instruction used in standards one to three. This study was carried out within Nyeri County. The target population was standard one to three classes, teachers and their parents. A multistage sampling technique was adopted. Schools were randomly or purposefully selected at various stages. Data was collected from private and public schools through lesson observations, interviewing teachers and focus group discussion with parents. Validity and reliability were established through cross-validation. The qualitative data collected was analyzed using Kitwoods Qualitative Technique of Analysis. This helped bring out the emerging patterns, themes and trends. The study found out that there was unsystematic mixing of languages in classroom instruction. This ignored not only the language policy but rules of language use. Lessons of language of catchment area were mostly used to teach English, Kiswahili, mathematics and foreign languages. Teachers’ and parents’ language preference had an influence in the choice of language of instruction. The study recommends a comprehensive program for implementation of mother tongue instruction policy.


Conferences attended by Margret Wanjiru Mwangi
i. Kenya Education Management Institute
4th KEMI National Conference
THEME: Re-energizing Education Performance
DATE: 17th -18 June 2014
Year: 2014

Name: Margret Wanjiru Mwangi

Topic: Factors that influence pupil’s transition from pre-primary t0 primary school in Kiambu Sub-County, Kiambu County
Journalistic Story
This study was conducted after an observation that was made concerning pupils dropping out school in lower primary school levels due to transition related practices. It was also noted that almost all primary schools in Kenya had established feeder pre-primary schools that are suppose to provide standard one pupil to the primary school. Despite the fact that these feeder pre-primary school provide pupil to most primary school there is minimal communication and coloration between teachers in the two learning centers. In addition, most primary school teachers were not aware of appropriate teaching practices for pre-primary school. This practice seemed to create a discontinuity between pre-primary and primary school practices. The research tried to find out the strategies that pre-primary and primary school teachers used while helping pupils make appropriate transition to primary school. Transition to primary school is a process that should involve all the stakeholders involved. However, this study just focused on how parents were involved in the transition process by both pre-primary and primary school teachers.


Abstract:
Transition from pre-school to formal schooling has been described as one of the major challenges children have to face in their early childhood years. In Kenya, pre-primary school education is not compulsory and therefore attendance in pre-primary school is not a prerequisite for joining Primary Standard One. Some children are therefore likely to enroll in primary school without necessarily going through pre-primary school education. Studies show that gross enrollment rate in pre-primary school is around 35%. Further, studies have found that thirty percent of children who join standard one drop out of school as soon as they enter standard one due to unfriendly environment that children find themselves in, in primary school. Studies done in Kenya have not focused on establishing the transition strategies that teachers in Early Childhood Education are using and how they involve parents in ensuring continuity of learning experiences in pre-school and primary school. Appropriate transition strategies should create a degree of continuity between pre-primary and primary school and support children’s smooth transition and adjustment in primary school. This study was based on Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design Four research objectives guided the study: to establish transition strategies used by pre-primary teachers during transition from preschool to primary school, to identify the transition strategies used by primary school teachers during transition from preschool to primary school, to establish how parents are involved in the transition process and finally to find out the challenges associated with transition to primary school. The sample size constituted twelve (12) primary school teachers, twelve (12) pre-primary school teachers who were obtained through Multiple Variation Sampling (MVS) and twelve (12) parents who were randomly sampled. A survey research method was used and descriptive data collected using interview schedules, observation checklists and Focus Group Discussions. Data was analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis based on Spradley’s semantic relationships. This helped to bring out emerging themes, sub-themes, and trends in transition. The study found that pre-primary and primary school teachers used transition strategies such as using developmentally appropriate curriculum, using child centered methods of teaching, collaboration between pre-primary and primary school teachers and informing parents about their child’s progress at school. However, a lot of inappropriate transition strategies were also identified such as administering ‘interview’ before primary school entry, instructing pupils in English language which was a second and to some a third language. Communication breakdown was also noted between teachers in the two settings and between teachers and parents. The study also found that parents were less involved in their children’s education and also in the transition process. According to Bronfenbrenner’s theory children’s smooth transition is only possible when all stake holders are involved in the transition process and when there is proper communication among them. The study recommends that teachers in pre-primary should be trained more on using developmentally appropriate practices and how to use child centered curriculum practices. Primary school teachers should also ensure clear channels of communication and collaboration with pre-primary school teachers. The primary school management should ensure that parents are involved in their children’s learning through our their learning years in both pre-primary and in primary school.

ii. Kenyatta University
School of Education
Theme: Education and long life learning
Date: 31st Oct 2014

Name: Margret Wanjiru Mwangi
Topic: Pre-school teacher’s use of oral instructional strategies in English in Kasarani constituency, Nairobi County
Journalistic Story: this study intended to find out the strategies that pre-primary school teachers used to instruct pupils in ECDE whose first language was not English. Most of the pupils in the school used Kiswahili as their first language yet teachers in the sampled school instructed them in English language. The study found that teachers used strategies such as code switching, repeating, and extending among others.


Absract
Language is a medium of communication through which people express themselves. Children in Early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE) should communicate and be communicated to in a language they underhand best. The language policy in Kenya states that children in ECDE should be instructed in the language of the catchment area or in mother tongue. Studies have found that the practice is that children are instructed in English language at this critical stage of language development. English language is either a second or a third language to majority of children in Kenyan preschools. This study therefore intended to find out the instructional strategies used by ECE teachers in Kasarani Division when instruct children in English. A descriptive survey was used to find out the strategies used by the teachers. Questionnaires and observation checklists were used. The study found that teacher used code switching, repetition and extension methods when teaching in ECDE to facilitating the use of English as a medium of instruction. Conclusively, the research provided the recommendations for the teachers teaching in ECE.

3. Workshop
i. Riara University
Topic: Develop an ECD curriculum to be used to induct pre-primary school teachers in the County governments.
Name: Margret Wanjiru Mwangi
Areas of Focus: Child growth and Development, ECD Curriculum areas, roles and responsibilities of and ECD teacher and transition from pre-primary to primary school.
Date: 21st to 23rd March 2014

Journalistic Story: This workshop was planned with the intention of developing curriculum materials for training Early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE) teachers in all the counties in Kenya. The training module developed in the workshop covered all the nine suggested ECDE curriculum areas, child growth and development, transition to primary school, roles and responsibilities of a pre-primary school teacher, and teaching methods in ECDE among others.

4. Publications (Books)
i. Title: General psychology
Publisher: Longhorn Publishers
Year: 2009
ISBN: 996636441-2

Journalistic story:
This book seeks to explain the principles that govern the study of human minds and its effect on behavior; why children view and interpret issues differently, and how psychology affects learning at Early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE) level. This book is an effective guide for students pursuing Certificate, Diploma and Degree in ECDE. All relevant topics are well discussed in a simple language and summaries are given. Test questions given at the end of every chapter for quick revision.

ii. Title: Methods of teaching ECD Mathematics
Publisher: Longhorn Publishers
Year: 2009
ISBN: 996636433-1
Name: Margret Wanjiru Mwangi
Journalistic story: This book offers comprehensive information and guidance on how young children learn mathematics. It acquaints readers such as pre-primary school teachers, teacher trainees, trainers and lecturers with the content, skills, concepts, methods and approaches that make learning mathematics at ECDE meaningful and purposeful. A recap of each and every chapter and given and revision questions are provided.


iii. Title: ECDE Diploma Revision Book 1
CODE: 6011 & 6016
Publisher: Longhorn Publishers
Year: 2014
ISBN: 978996631269-3
Name: Margret Wanjiru Mwangi
Journalistic Story: this is a revision book for students pursuing Diploma and Degree in Early Childhood Studies. Question and answer are derived from the topics suggested in the approved syllabus for Diploma in Early Childhood Development abd Education (ECDE) in Kenya. The content areas covered from Code 6011 include: general psychology, personality development and guidance and counseling. Content areas for code 6016 include all the curriculum areas: Mathematics, Language, science, social studies, music and movement, outdoor activities, religion and life skills. This book is meant to assist student revise for their final examination that is set by Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) at the end of two year training.

Last Updated on Saturday, 28 March 2015 11:51

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